Guntur Sannam

Guntur Sannam or Capsicum Annuum var. Longhum, is one of the most famous types of chillies and has a huge demand throughout the world.[1][2] It widely grows in Guntur, Warangal, and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh in India.

Origin

Guntur Sannam chilli belongs to the variety Capsicum annum. It is well known as a commercial crop used as a condiment, culinary supplement or as a vegetable. Among the spices consumed per head in India, dried chillies contribute a major share.

Chilli was known to Indians about 400 years ago. Globally, India stands first in the production of chilli. The province of Andhra Pradesh leads in its production, providing 46% of all chilli produced in India. The very fact that etymologically, the word Guntur Sannam chilli has its origin in Telugu confirms its Andhra Pradesh origin. The word Sannam stands for thin in Telugu.

Foreseeing the potential for chilli production in this region, the government of Andhra Pradesh started a regional research station at LAM near Guntur, India, three decades ago, which works on research aspects of chilli as well.[3] Guntur has been associated with chillies for decades, and hence the prefix Guntur for the name of this chilli.

At present, chilli has become one of the most important cash crops and thousands of people directly depend on the cultivation of this spice for their livelihood.

Etymology

The word Sannam in Telugu means 'thin'. The very name of the Guntur Sannam Chilli indicates two facts: the description of the fruit, and more importantly, the strong antecedents arising from Andhra Pradesh.

Characteristics

Guntur Sannam chilli has specific characteristics that have enabled it to earn international and national acclaim. Sannam chilli is generally known to trade as a S4 type chilli and is mainly used for its pungency and for the extraction and derivation of capsaicin. The following are the chief attributes/characteristics of Guntur Sannam chilli:

  • The Guntur Sannam chilli belongs to Capsicum Annuum var longhum variety with long fruits (5 to 15 cm. In length) and diameter range from 0.5 to 1.5 cm.
  • The chilli has thick skin.
  • The skin of crushed chili is thick, red and hot.
  • The chilli is hot and pungent with average pungency of 35,000 to 40,000 SHU.
  • The chilli is red with ASTA colour value of about 32.11.
  • The content of Capsaicin is about 0.226%.
  • This chilli is rich in vitamin C (185 mg/100 g) and protein (11.98 g/100 g).

Cultivation

Guntur Sannam has its peak harvesting season from December to May. The annual production of this type is approximately 280,000 tonnes. Guntur Sannam chilli has specific requirements in its means of production for attaining an ideal/optimum level of production. The crops are highly disease prone and need special care and attention to ensure a healthy pest free yield.

Guntur Sannam Factsheet
Producing Centers Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Assam
Harvesting seasons January To April or December to May
ASTA Colour Value 32.11
Capsaicin content 0.226%
Annual Production 280,000 Tonnes

Geographical area of production

In the geographical area of Guntur Sannam, chilli is cultivated, processed and made available mainly from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. It is also grown in neighbouring regions, namely in the districts of Prakasam, Warangal and Khammam.

Guntur Sannam chilli requires a warm and humid climate for its growth and dry weather during its period of maturation. The crop can be grown at altitudes up to 2,100 metres. Black soils with pH 6 to 7 and retain moisture for longer periods are suitable for a rainfed crop, whereas well-drained chalky, deltaic, and sandy loamy soils are good under irrigated conditions.

District & State Latitude Longitude
Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 15.55°N to 16.35°N 79.19°E to 80.36°E
Warangal, Andhra Pradesh 17.30°N to 18.18°N 78.25°E to 80.15°E
Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh 14.57°N to 16.17°N 78.43°E to 80.25°E
Khammam, Andhra Pradesh 16.48°N to 18.18°N 79.30°E to 81.18°E

Grades of Guntur Sannam

At least 4 grades of Guntur Sannam chillies are known to exist. They are:

  • Sannam Special (S.S.): light red in colour, shining, with a length of 5 cm and more.
  • Sannam General (S.G.): light red in colour, shining skin, with a length of 3 to 5 cm.
  • Sannam Fair (S.F.): which is blackish a dull red in colour with a length of 3 to 5 cm.
  • Non Specified (N.S.): This is not a regular grade and is meant to meet specific requirements of the buyers which are not covered under regular grades.

Comparison with other chillis

Capsaicin values of some of the well-known and accepted varieties of Indian chillis are:[4]

Chillies Capsaicin content
Guntur Sannam 0.226%
Byadagi (Kaddi) Negligible
Nalchetti (Semi Bird Eye) 0.12%
Kashmiri (Annigira) NA
S9 Mundu NA
Wonderhot NA
Tomato Chilli (Warangal) NA
Madras Pari 0.206%

See also

References

All data is from Wikipedia.

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