Peppers, hot chili, red, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 166 kJ (40 kcal)
Carbohydrates
8.8 g
Sugars 5.3 g Dietary fiber 1.5 g
Fat
0.4 g
Protein
1.9 g
Vitamins Vitamin A equiv.
beta-carotene
(6%)
48 μg
(5%)
534 μg
Vitamin B6
(39%)
0.51 mg Vitamin C
(173%)
144 mg Trace metals Iron
(8%)
1 mg Magnesium
(6%)
23 mg Potassium
(7%)
322 mg Other constituents Water 88 g Capsaicin 0.01g – 6 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Red chilies contain large amounts of vitamin C and small amounts of carotene (provitamin A). Yellow and especially green chilies (which are essentially unripe fruit) contain a considerably lower amount of both substances. In addition, peppers are a good source of most B vitamins, and vitamin B6 in particular. They are very high in potassium, magnesium, and iron. Their very high vitamin C content can also substantially increase the uptake of non-heme iron from other ingredients in a meal, such as beans and grains.

Evolutionary advantages

Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin, because it targets a specific pain receptor in mammals. Chili peppers are eaten by birds living in the chili peppers' natural range. The seeds of the peppers are distributed by the birds that drop the seeds while eating the pods, and the seeds pass through the digestive tract unharmed. This relationship may have promoted the evolution of the protective capsaicin.[34] Products based on this substance have been sold to treat the seeds in bird feeders to deter squirrels and other mammalian vermin without also deterring birds. Capsaicin is also a defense mechanism against microbial fungi that invade through punctures made in the outer skin by various insects.[35]

Spelling and usage

The three primary spellings are chili, chile and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.

The name of the plant is almost certainly unrelated to that of Chile, the country, which has an uncertain etymology perhaps relating to local place names.[43] Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico are some of the Spanish-speaking countries where chilies are known as ají, a word of Taíno origin. Though pepper originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum, the latter usage is included in English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary (sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster.[44] The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chili plants and their fruits.

Gallery

See also

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References

  1. ^ "HORT410. Peppers – Notes". Purdue University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 20 October 2009. "Common name: pepper. Latin name: Capsicum annuum L. ... Harvested organ: fruit. Fruit varies substantially in shape, pericarp thickness, color and pungency." 
  2. ^ Dasgupta, Reshmi R (8 May 2011). "Indian chilli displacing jalapenos in global cuisine – The Economic Times". The Times Of India. 
  3. ^ "Chile Pepper History & Chile Pepper Glossary". www.thenibble.com. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Indian Chilli,Chilli India,Indian Chilli Exporters,Indian Red Dry Chilli". Agrocrops.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "Govt. of India Ministry Of Agriculture". 
  6. ^ "indiaagrifarms Resources and Information. This website is for sale!". indiaagrifarms.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  7. ^ "Birthplace of the domesticated chili pepper identified in Mexico" Eurekalert April 21, 2014
  8. ^ "Bosland, P.W. 1998. Capsicums: Innovative uses of an ancient crop. ''p. 479–487. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA.''". Hort.purdue.edu. 22 August 1997. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  9. ^ "Chile Pepper Glossary". Thenibble.com. August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  10. ^ Heiser Jr., C.B. 1976. Pp. 265–268 in N.W. Simmonds (ed.). Evolution of Crop Plants. London: Longman.
  11. ^ Eshbaugh, W.H. 1993. Pp. 132–139 in J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). New Crops. New York: Wiley.
  12. ^ Collingham, Elizabeth (February 2006). Curry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-09-943786-4. 
  13. ^ Robinson, Simon (14 June 2007). "Chili Peppers: Global Warming". www.time.com. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Hjelmqvist, Hakon. "Cayennepeppar från Lunds medeltid". Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, vol 89. pp. 193–. 
  15. ^ S Kosuge, Y Inagaki, H Okumura (1961). Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part VIII. On the chemical constitutions of the pungent principles. Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi (J. Agric. Chem. Soc.), 35, 923–927; (en) Chem. Abstr. 1964, 60, 9827g.
  16. ^ (ja) S Kosuge, Y Inagaki (1962) Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part XI. Determination and contents of the two pungent
  17. ^ Yasser A. Mahmmoud (2008). "Capsaicin Stimulates Uncoupled ATP Hydrolysis by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump". Journal of Biological Chemistry 283 (31): 21418–21426. doi:10.1074/jbc.M803654200. PMID 18539598. 
  18. ^ Hot News about Chili Peppers, Chemical & Engineering News, 86, 33, 18 August 2008, p. 35
  19. ^ "History of the Scoville Scale | FAQS". Tabasco.Com. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  20. ^ "Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale". Homecooking.about.com. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper sets new record for hottest chilli". Guinness World Records. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title" Retrieved 11 May 2013
  23. ^ Joshi, Monika (11 March 2012). "Chile Pepper Institute studies what's hot". Your life (USA Today). Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli" Retrieved 12 April 2011
  25. ^ "Title of world's hottest chili pepper stolen - again". London: The Independent. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  26. ^ Neil Henderson (19 February 2011). ""Record-breaking" chilli is hot news". BBC News. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  27. ^ [1][dead link]
  28. ^ [2][dead link]
  29. ^ Paul Rozin1 and Deborah Schiller, Paul; Schiller, Deborah (1980). "The nature and acquisition of a preference for chili pepper by humans". Motivation and Emotion 4 (1): 77–101. doi:10.1007/BF00995932. 
  30. ^ Cancer nursing: principles and practice – Google Books. Books.google.ca. 2005. ISBN 978-0-7637-4720-6. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  31. ^ Science Daily: Capsaicin can act as co-carcinogen, study finds; Chili pepper component linked to skin cancer, 3 September 2010
  32. ^ Hwang, M. K.; Bode, A. M.; Byun, S.; Song, N. R.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, K. W.; Dong, Z. (2010). "Cocarcinogenic Effect of Capsaicin Involves Activation of EGFR Signaling but Not TRPV1". Cancer Research 70 (17): 6859–69. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4393. PMID 20660715.  edit
  33. ^ Mott, Maryann. "Elephant Crop Raids Foiled by Chili Peppers, Africa Project Finds". National Geographic. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  34. ^ Tewksbury, J. J.; Nabhan, G. P. (2001). "Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies". Nature 412 (6845): 403–404. doi:10.1038/35086653. PMID 11473305. 
  35. ^ John Roach (11 August 2008). "Fungus Puts the Heat in Chili Peppers, Study Says". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 13 August 2008. 
  36. ^ "chili" from Merriam-Webster; other spellings are listed as variants, with "Chili" identified as "chiefly British"
  37. ^ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary lists chili as the main entry, and labels chile as a variant, and chilli as a British variant.
  38. ^ Heiser, Charles (August 1990). Seed To Civilization: The Story of Food. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-79681-0. 
  39. ^ "A Brief History of Chilies : Kakawa Chocolate House, Mesoamerican Mayan Aztec Drinking Chocolate, Historic European and Colonial American Drinking Chocolate, Truffles and More". Kakawachocolates.com. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  40. ^ "Definition for chilli – Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  41. ^ Our Bureau. "Business Line : Industry & Economy / Agri-biz : Fall in exports crushes chilli prices in Guntur". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  42. ^ "Chilli, Capsicum and Pepper are spicy plants grown for the pod. Green chilli is a culinary requirement in any Sri Lankan household". Sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  43. ^ "Chili or Pepper?". Chilipedia.org. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  44. ^ "va=pepper – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". M-w.com. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 

External links

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